Novel Coronavirus

Saturday, December 24, 2022

In December 2019, there was a cluster of pneumonia casesin China. 
2019 年 12 月,中国出现了多例肺炎病例。
(2019 nián12 yuè, zhōnɡɡuó chūxiànle duōlì fèiyán bìnɡlì.)
Key Words: 肺炎病例 (fèi yán bìnɡ lì) pneumonia cases 

Investigations found that it was caused by a previously unknown virus now named the 2019 Novel Coronavirus.
调查发现,该肺炎是由一种未知病毒引起的,先命名为 2019 新型冠状病毒。
(diàochá fāxiàn, ɡāifèiyán shìyóu yìzhǒnɡ wèizhī bìnɡdú yínqǐde, xiān mìnɡmínɡ wéi  2019  xīnxínɡ ɡuànhuànɡ bìnɡdú.)
Key Words: 新型冠状肺炎(xīn xínɡ ɡuàn zhuànɡ fèi yán) novel coronavirus

They consist of a core of genetic material surrounded by an envelope with protein spikes.
病毒内部包含遗传物质,外围由蛋白刺突包裹。
(bìnɡdú nèibù bāohán yíchuán wùzhì, wàiwéi yóu dànbái cìtū bāoɡuǒ.)
Key Words: 遗传物质 (yí chuán wù zhì) genetic material

This gives it the appearance of a crown. Crown in Latin is called "corona" and that's how these viruses get their name.
这使其外表类似王冠。冠在拉丁语中被称为“corona”,因此,病毒得此命名。
(zhè shǐqí wàibiǎo lèisì wánɡguān. ɡuàn zài lādīnɡyǔ zhōnɡ bèichēnɡwéi "corona ", yīncǐ, bìnɡdú décǐ mìnɡmínɡ.)

There are different types of corona viruses that cause respiratory and sometimes gastrointestinal symptoms.
有不同类型的冠状病毒会引起呼吸道症状,有时还会引起胃肠道症状。
(yǒu bùtónɡ lèixínɡ de ɡuànzhuànɡ bìnɡdú huì yínqǐ hūxīdào zhènɡzhuànɡ, yǒushí háihuì yínqǐ wèichánɡdào zhènɡzhuànɡ)
Key Words: 胃肠道症状 (wèi chánɡ dào zhènɡ zhuànɡ) gastrointestinal symptoms; 呼吸道症状 (hū xī dào zhènɡ zhuànɡ) respiratory symptoms

Respiratory disease can range from the common cold to pneumonia. And in most people, the symptoms tend to be mild.
呼吸道疾病包括普通感冒,肺炎。对大多数来说,症状往往比较轻。
(hūxīdào jíbìnɡ bāokuò pǔtōnɡ ɡǎnmào, fèiyán. duì dàduōshù láishuō, zhènɡzhuànɡ wánɡwǎnɡ bǐjiào qīnɡ.)
Key Words: 轻症 (qīnɡ zhènɡ) mild

However, there are some types of coronaviruses that can cause severe disease. These include the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus first identified in China in 2003 and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus that was first identified in Saudi Arabia in 2012.
然而,有一些类型的冠状病毒会导致严重疾病。其中包括2003年在中国首次发现的严重急性呼吸综合征冠状病毒和2012年在沙特阿拉伯首次发现的中东呼吸综合征病毒。
(ránér,  yǒu yìxiē lèixínɡ de ɡuànzhuànɡ bìnɡdú huì dǎozhì yánzhònɡ jíbìnɡ. qízhōnɡ bāokuò 2003nián zài zhōnɡɡuó shǒucì fāxiàn de yánzhònɡ jíxìnɡ hūxī zōnɡhézhēnɡ ɡuànzhuànɡ bìnɡdú hé 2012nián zài shātè ālābó shǒucì fāxiàn de zhōnɡdōnɡ hūxī zōnhézhēnɡ bìnɡdú.)
Key Words: 非典 (fēi diǎn) SARS; 中东呼吸综合征 (zhōnɡ dōnɡ hū xī zōnɡ hé zhēnɡ) MERS

The 2019 Novel Coronavirus was first identified in China. It initially occurred in a group of people with pneumonia who'd been associated with a seafood and live animal market in the city of Wuhan.
2019年新型冠状病毒首次在中国发现。它最初发生在一群肺炎患者身上,他们与武汉市的活禽市场有关联。
(2019 nián xīnxínɡ ɡuànzhuànɡ bìnɡdú shǒucì zài zhōnɡɡuó fāxiàn. tā zuìchū fāshēnɡ zài yìqún fèiyán huànzhě shēnshànɡ, tāmen yǔ wǔhànshì de huóqín shìchǎnɡ yǒuɡuānlián.)

The disease has since spread from those who were sick to others including family members and health care staff.
自那以后,这种疾病已经从患病者传播到其他人,包括家庭成员和医护人员。
(zìnà yǐhòu, zhèzhǒnɡ jíbìnɡ yǐjīnɡ cónɡ huànbìnɡzhě chuánbō dào qítārén, bāokuò jiātínɡ chénɡyuán hé yīhù rényuán.)
Key Words: 医护人员 (yī hù rén yuán) health care staff

There are many cases at present and the disease has spread within China and also to a number of other countries.
目前有许多病例,该病已在中国国内传播,也传播到许多其他国家。
(mùqián yǒu xǔduō bìnɡlì, ɡāibìnɡ yǐ zài zhōnɡɡuó ɡuónèi chuánbō, yě chuánbōdào xǔduō qítā ɡuójiā.)

So,where did the virus come from? It's known that coronaviruses circulate in a range of animals.
那么,病毒是从哪里来的?众所周知,冠状病毒在一系列动物中传播。
(nàme, bìnɡdú shì cónɡ nǎlǐ lái de? zhònɡsuǒ zhōuzhī, ɡuànzhuànɡ bìnɡdú zài yíxìliè dònɡwù zhōnɡ chuánbō.)
Key Words: 传播 (chuán bō) circulate

Sometimes these viruses can make the jump from animals to humans.
有时这些病毒会从动物跳到人类。
(yǒushí zhèxiē bìnɡdú huì cónɡ dònɡwù tiàodào rénlèi.)

This is called a spillover and could be due to a range of factors such as mutations in the virus or increased contact between humans and animals.
这被称为病毒外流,可能是由于某些因素导致的,如病毒病变或者人类与动物之间的接触变得频繁。
(zhè bèi chēnɡwéi bìnɡdú wàiliú, kěnénɡ shì yóu yú mǒuxiē yīnsù dǎozhì de, rú bìnɡdú bìnɡbiàn huòzhě rén lèi yǔ dònɡwù zhījiān de jiēchù biàn dé pínfán.)
Key Words: 病毒外流 (bìnɡ dú wài liú) spillover; 病变 (bìnɡ biàn) mutations

For example, MERS-CoV is known to be transmitted from camels and SARS-CoV, from civet cats.
例如,已知MERS-CoV由骆驼传播,SARS-CoV则由果子狸传播。
(lìrú, yǐzhī MERS-CoV yóu luòtuo chuánbō, SARS-CoV zéyóu ɡuǒzilí chuánbō.)

The animal reservoir of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus is not known yet.
2019年新型冠状病毒的动物宿主尚不清楚。
(2019 nián xīnxínɡ ɡuànzhuànɡ bìnɡdú de dònɡwù sùzhǔ shànɡbù qīnɡchu.)
Key Words: 动物宿主 (dònɡ wù sù zhǔ) animal reservoir

How is ittransmitted?The exact dynamics of how the virus is transmitted is yet to be determined.
它是如何传播的呢? 病毒如何传播的具体细节还有待确定。
(tā shì rúhé chuánbō de ne ?  bìnɡdú rúhé chuánbō de jùtǐ xìjié hái yǒudài quèdìnɡ.)

In general, respiratory viruses are usually transmitted through droplets created when an infected person coughs or sneezes, or through something that has been contaminated with the virus.
总体来说,呼吸道疾病通常通过感染者的咳嗽或者打喷嚏时候产生的飞沫或被病毒污染的物体传播。
(zónɡtǐ láishuō, hūxīdào jíbìnɡ tōnɡchánɡ tōnɡɡuò ɡánrǎnzhě de késou huòzhě dǎpēntì shíhou chǎnshēnɡ de fēimò huò bèi bìnɡdú wūrǎn de wùtǐ chuánbō.)
Key Words: 飞沫 (fēi mò) droplets; 被污染 (bèi wū rǎn ) contaminated with.. 

People mostat risk of infection from the Novel Coronavirus are those in close contact with animals, such as live animal market workers, and those who are caring for people infected with the virus. such as family members or healthcare workers.
感染新型冠状病毒的风险最大的人群是那些与动物密切接触的人群,例如活动物市场工作人员,以及那些照顾感染该病毒的人的人群。例如家庭成员或医护人员。
(ɡánrǎn xīnxínɡ ɡuànzhuànɡ bìnɡdú de fēnɡxiǎn zuìdà de rénqún shì nàxiē yǔ dònɡwù mìqiè jiēchù de rénqún, lìrú huódònɡwù shìchǎnɡ ɡōnɡzuò rényuán, yǐjí nàxiē zhàoɡù ɡánrǎn ɡāibìnɡdú de rén de rénqún. lìrú jiātínɡ chénɡyuán huò yīhù rényuán.)

So, how does the disease present?
那么,这种疾病的临床表现是什么样呢?
(nàme, zhèzhǒnɡ jíbìnɡ de línchuánɡ biǎoxiàn shì shénmeyànɡ ne?)
Key Words: 临床表现 (lín chuánɡ biǎo xiàn) present

Well,from what is known so far, there can be a number of symptoms ranging from mild to severe.There can be fever and respiratory symptoms such as cough and shortness of breath.
从目前已知的情况来看,可能会有一些症状,症状有轻有重。可能会有发烧和呼吸道症状,如咳嗽和呼吸短促。
(cónɡ mùqián yǐzhī de qínɡkuànɡ láikàn,  kěnénɡ huì yǒu yìxiē zhènɡzhuànɡ, zhènɡzhuànɡ yǒuqīnɡ yǒuzhònɡ. kěnénɡ huì yǒu fāshāo hé hūxīdào zhènɡzhuànɡ, rú késou hé hūxī duǎncù)

In more severe cases, there's been pneumonia, kidney failure, and death. The mortality rate is not known yet.
在大部分病例中,有肺炎、肾衰竭和死亡。目前的死亡率还不清楚.
(zài dàbùfen bìnɡlìzhōnɡ, yǒu fèiyán, shènshuāijié hé sǐwánɡ. mùqián de sǐwánɡlǜ hái bù qīnɡchu.)
Key Words: 肾衰竭 (shèn shuāi jié) kidney failure; 死亡率 (sǐ wánɡ lǜ) mortality rate

How can we tell whether someone is infected? The infection can be diagnosed by a test called PCR or Polymerase Chain Reaction.
我们如何判断是否有人感染?这种感染可以通过一种叫做PCR或聚合酶链反应的测试来诊断。
(wǒmen rúhé pànduàn shìfǒuyǒu rén ɡánrǎn? zhèzhǒnɡ ɡánrǎn kéyǐ tōnɡɡuò yìzhǒnɡ jiàozuò PCR huò jùhéméiliàn fǎnyìnɡ de cèshì lái zhěnduàn.)
Key Words: 聚合酶链反应 (jù hé méi liàn fǎn yìnɡ) PCR

This test identifies the virus based on its genetic fingerprint.
这项测试根据病毒的基因序列识别病毒。
(zhèxiànɡ cèshì ɡēnjù bìnɡdú de jīyīn xùliè shíbié bìnɡdú.)
Key Words: 基因序列 (jī yīn xù liè) genetic fingerprint 

However, there are a number of standard hygiene practices that have been recommended to protect against infection and further spread.
不过,现已经推行了一些标准卫生措施来预防感染和进一步传播。
(búɡuò, xiàn yǐjīnɡ tuīxínɡ le yìxiē biāozhǔn wèishēnɡ cuòshī lái yùfánɡ ɡánrǎn hé jìnyíbù chuánbō.)

These include covering your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing with a medica masktissue or flexedelbow: avoiding close contact with those who are unwell; the appropriate useofmasks and personal protective equipment, especially in a healthcare setting; washing hands regularly with soap and water, or alcohol-based hand rub.
包括在咳嗽和打喷嚏的时候用口罩掩住口鼻,或者用纸巾,肘部;避免与身体有异样的人接触,适当的用口罩和个人防护用品,尤其在医院;经常用肥皂洗手,或者用酒精擦拭手。
(bāokuò zài késou hé dǎpēntì de shíhou yònɡ kǒuzhào yǎnzhù kǒubí, huòzhě yònɡ zhǐjīn, zhǒubù ; bìmiǎn yǔ shēntǐ yǒu yìyànɡ de rén jiēchù, shìdànɡ de yònɡ kǒuzhào hé ɡèrén fánɡhù yònɡpǐn, yóuqí zài yīyuàn ; jīnɡchánɡ yònɡ féizào xíshǒu, huòzhě yònɡ jiǔjīnɡ cāshìshǒu.)
Key Words: 肘部 (zhǒu bù) flexed elbow

Actions that can be taken to prevent infection from an animal source include: avoiding unnecessary unprotected contact with animals: washing hands after contact with animals or animal products: and ensuring that animal products are cooked thoroughly before they're consumed.
还需采取预防动物源感染的措施,包括避免与动物进行不必要的直接接触,接触动物或者动物食品后需要洗手,确保动物食品在食用前彻底煮熟。
(háixū cáiqǔ yùfánɡ dònɡwùyuán ɡánrǎn de cuòshī, bāokuò bìmiǎn yǔ dònɡwù jìnxínɡ búbìyào de zhíjiē jiēchù, jiēchù dònɡwù huòzhě dònɡwù shípǐn hòu xūyào xíshǒu, quèbǎo dònɡwù shípǐn zài shíyònɡqián chèdǐ zhǔshú.)

But if you have a fever ,cough, and difficulty breathing, seek medical care early and share your previous travel history with your healthcare provider.
但如果你发烧、咳嗽和呼吸困难,请尽早就医,并给医护人员提供你以前的旅行史。
(dàn rúɡuǒ nǐ fāshāo, késou hé hūxī kùnnɑn, qǐnɡ jǐnzǎo jiùyī , bìnɡ ɡěi yīhù rényuán tíɡōnɡ nǐ yǐqián de lǚxínɡshǐ.)

 

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